For various reasons dogs sometimes require artificial insemination. In this procedure the semen is collected from a male dog and placed via a small plastic tube in the females vagina. A drop of semen is saved to evaluate sperm motility and number.
Generally Caesarian are necessary for pups or kittens which are too large, malpresentation, or uterine inertia. In this procedures the pups or kittens are delivered surgically through an incision in the abdomen. A short acting anesthetic is used so that the mother can go home with her offspring shortly after surgery.
Vaginal cytology is used to stage what part of heat a dog is in. This is necessary to ensure proper timing of breeding, particularly when large traveling distances are involved between stud and bitch. Another test, which greatly helps in determining when the bitch ovulates is the serum progesterone test, done with a blood sample.